Study of reptiles and amphibians
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Amphibians: They are tetrapod (four-legged) vertebrates, which have gill, lung and skin respiration. Most species undergo metamorphosis, live in continental environments and develop on land and in water.
Reptiles: Tetrapod (four-legged) vertebrates whose bodies are covered by scales or bony plates; they have mainly pulmonary respiration and can live in islands, continental and marine environments. They are oviparous and ovoviviparous.
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This study presents an updated review of the richness, composition and distribution of the amphibians and reptiles of the department of Casanare. We reviewed 1,012 specimens deposited in the main biological collections of the country and collected 658 specimens in four municipalities of Casanare. A record of 46 species of amphibians and 65 species of reptiles was obtained, of which six correspond to new records and two extend the known distribution in the country. The municipalities of Sácama, Támara and Recetor presented the greatest information gaps.
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The Barranca de Metztitlán Biosphere Reserve (RBBM) is a large protected area (96 042.94 ha) in the central part of the state of Hidalgo, Mexico. The reserve is well known for its endemic flora, but little information is available on its herpetofauna. This study examines the biodiversity of the amphibian and reptile community inhabiting each of the 4 vegetation types of the reserve: pine-oak forest, tropical deciduous forest, submontane scrub, and xerophytic scrub. Field work was carried out between June 2006 and August 2007, the rainy and dry seasons. In total, 7 species of amphibians and 31 species of reptiles were recorded for the RBBM, distributed in 14 families and 29 genera. In all vegetation types, reptile species richness was higher in the rainy season, while amphibian species richness was higher in the dry season. Among vegetation types, tropical deciduous forest exhibited the greatest diversity and species richness of amphibians and reptiles. The pine-oak forest had the highest species richness and diversity than the other vegetation types. The xerophytic scrub and submontane scrub were the most similar to each other in species diversity. This work represents a significant contribution to the knowledge of the herpetofauna of the RBBM, and a basis for future studies on the natural history of the amphibians and reptiles of this reserve.
Reptiles and amphibians
Toads (Bufonidae) in Mexico 34 13 endemics Glass Frogs (Centrolenidae)in Mexico 1Leaf Frogs (Craugastoridae) in Mexico 3926 endemics Long-toed Frogs(Eleutherodactylidae) in Mexico 2518 endemics Tree Frogs(Hylidae)in Mexico 9766 endemics Foam Frogs(Leptodactylidae)in Mexico 3 Thermite Toads(Microhylidae)in Mexico 5Clawed Frogs(Pipidae)in Mexico 1 Spotted Frogs(Ranidae)in Mexico 27 16 endemics Mexico 3 Thermite toads(Microhylidae) in Mexico 5Clawed frogs(Pipidae) in Mexico 1 Spotted frogs(Ranidae)in Mexico 27 16 endemics Drunken toads(Rhinophrynidae)in Mexico 1Digger toads(Scaphiopodidae) in Mexico 4Populations of many amphibian species have declined and some have disappeared. They appear to be more sensitive to changes in the environment than other terrestrial vertebrates. Among the main causes of decline are fungal infection (trichidiomycosis), pollution and the introduction of exotic species, which prey on them.