Nervous system of reptiles

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  1. Bird's cerebellum
    1. Nervous system of reptiles ppt
    2. Sistema nervioso del pato
    3. Bird Nervousness

Bird's cerebellum

Irene Echeverria Altuna does not work for, consult, own shares in or receive funding from any company or organisation that would benefit from this article, and has disclosed no relevant affiliations beyond their academic appointment.

Other studies have suggested that the hindbrain is responsible for integrating information from different senses, such as sight and hearing, thus helping to build a cohesive and unified perception.

In contrast, we know the hippocampus as the guardian of memory and the amygdala as the cradle of emotions and, in particular, of fear. And it is so clear to us from the study of patients suffering from specific lesions to these areas.

But what about the claustrum? Can we understand what it is for by studying patients without a claustrum? Do they perceive, perhaps, the world in a disintegrated and disorganized way? The thin, elongated shape of the claustrum, as well as its confinement between adjacent structures, make specific lesions of this area infrequent. Nevertheless, a recent study attempted to document cases that, to date, have described patients with lesions of the claustrum.

Nervous system of reptiles ppt

Although there are numerous definitions of pain, almost all involve two key components. First, nociception is required.[5] This is the ability to detect noxious stimuli that elicit a reflex response, which causes the entire animal, or the affected part of its body, to quickly move away from the source of the stimulus. The concept of nociception does not imply any subjective sensation, but a reflex. An example in humans would be the rapid withdrawal of a finger that has touched something hot. The withdrawal occurs before any sensation of pain is actually experienced.

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Reflex arc of a dog with a pin in its paw. As can be seen, there is no communication with the brain, but the paw is withdrawn by nerve impulses generated by the spinal cord. There is no conscious interpretation of the stimulus by the dog.

Nerve impulses from the nociceptive response can be conducted to the brain which registers the location, intensity, quality and unpleasantness of the stimulus. The subjective component of pain involves conscious awareness and unpleasantness of the sensation. The brain processes underlying the conscious perception of unpleasantness (suffering) have not been fully understood. Many animals also exhibit more complex physiological and behavioral changes, which indicate the ability to experience pain: they eat less food, their normal behavior is altered, their social behavior is suppressed, they may adopt unusual behavioral patterns, they may issue distress calls, they experience cardiovascular and respiratory changes, as well as inflammation and release of stress hormones.[6] The following are some examples.

Sistema nervioso del pato

ResumenLos reptiles modernos o vivientes comprenden cuatro órdenes diferentes: los Chelonia (tortugas), los Rhynchocephalia (la tuátara, Sphenodon, de Nueva Zelanda), los Squamata (anfisbénidos, lagartos y serpientes) y los Crocodilia (caimanes y cocodrilos). Reptiles, aves y mamíferos forman juntos los amniotas y se distinguen de los anfibios por la evolución de un patrón reproductivo sin agua estancada. Los amniotas parecen ser un grupo monofilético que evolucionó a partir de un único tronco de tetrápodos primitivos durante el Carbonífero temprano (Carroll 1988). Basándose en consideraciones filogenéticas (véase Romer y Parsons 1977; Carroll 1988), pueden reconocerse dos grandes grupos de amniotas: los mamíferos y sus antepasados, y todos los demás amniotas. En el Carbonífero superior, los amniotas se habían dividido en tres linajes principales (Fig. 20.1): uno que dio lugar a los mamíferos, un segundo a las tortugas y un tercero a la mayoría de los demás grupos de reptiles y a las aves (Carroll 1969, 1988). Dentro de los reptiles modernos, los cocodrilianos comparten una ascendencia más reciente con las aves que con los escamosos o las tortugas.

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Bird Nervousness

Emergencies come in many forms: fires, hurricanes, earthquakes, tornadoes, floods, severe storms and even acts of terrorism. In the event of an extreme weather event or disaster, would you know what to do to protect your pet? Be prepared: make a plan and prepare a kit for your pet. You can find out what kind of shelters and help for pets are in your area. This information can help you include your pets in your disaster plan to keep them safe.

RedRover shelters and cares for animals displaced by natural disasters and other crises in the United States and Canada. If you need help, call RedRover at (800) 440-3277 or visit their website at RedRover.orgexternal icon.

Natural disasters can contribute to the transmission of some diseases. Exposure to bad weather, standing water, wild animals and plants or unfamiliar animals, and crowding can put your pet at risk for illness. Some of these diseases can be transmitted between people and pets (also known as zoonotic diseases or zoonoses). Some common disaster-related diseases that pets can pass to people include the following: rabies, leptospirosis, and diseases spread by mosquitoes, fleas and ticks.

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