How are amphibians different from reptiles

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Tabla de Contenido
  1. Classification of amphibians and reptiles
    1. Amphibian and reptile characteristics
    2. Importance of amphibians
    3. Amphibians and reptiles differences

Classification of amphibians and reptiles

Amphibians are a group of vertebrates characterized by an aquatic life phase (larval period) during which they breathe through gills, after which, in most species, metamorphosis takes place, leading to the adult phase, less dependent on the aquatic environment and generally with a predominance of pulmonary and cutaneous respiration. It is thanks to this life cycle distributed between two environments, and to their sensitivity to pollutants that they are considered good bioindicators.

Within the Iberian Peninsula, we have a total of twenty-nine species of amphibians, of which nineteen are included in the order Anura (frogs and toads) and ten in the order Caudata (salamanders and newts). Of these species, 62.5% are threatened and facing a generalized regression in their populations, which urges their integrated management.

When a study of amphibian populations is needed, either because a work is going to affect them, or for a research project, fieldwork sessions are essential to gather the relevant information.

Amphibian and reptile characteristics

It differs from its congeneric species of the moorlands, Niceforonia brunnea, by its brown coloration pattern with white dots and because the internal metatarsal tubercle is equal or smaller than the external metatarsal tubercle (1). It differs from species of the genus Pristimantis by having very thin digital discs and toe III of the foot of the same length as toe V (toe V longer than III in Pristimantis).

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It is known from three localities in the vicinity of Papallacta (Napo Province). Further north in Ecuador, the species is found from El Chamizo (Carchi Province) to El Playón (Sucumbíos Province). Little is known about its range, it is likely that its distribution is wider.

Niceforonia peraccai is the sister species of Niceforonia brunnea (8).  It was originally described within the genus Phrynopus. Hedges et al. (3) assigned it to the genus Isodactylus but this genus was replaced by Hypodactylus by Hedges et al. (5).

Importance of amphibians

The vertebrate fauna in Cantabria presents a wide diversity thanks to the variety of ecological niches existing in the region and its geographical position, equidistant between the Mediterranean world of the southern peninsular and the nearby world of Atlantic Europe.

In relation to conservation, amphibian populations in Cantabria, like those around the world, are suffering a marked decline mainly due to habitat loss, disease and climate change.[5][6][7] The amphibian populations of Cantabria, as well as those around the world, are suffering a marked decline mainly due to habitat loss, disease and climate change.

Anurans, commonly known as frogs and toads, are characterized (in their adult phase) by their compact body, lacking tails and possessing highly developed hind legs adapted for jumping. Five families are represented in Cantabria, grouping ten species.

L: 8-13 cm. Body covered with wart-like protuberances. The color of its skin varies between a wide range of brownish, grayish and greenish tones. Its eyes are orange. It presents a marked sexual dimorphism, females are much larger than males.

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Amphibians and reptiles differences

Toads (Bufonidae) in Mexico 34 13 endemics Glass frogs (Centrolenidae)in Mexico 1Leaf frogs (Craugastoridae) in Mexico 3926 endemics Long-toed frogs(Eleutherodactylidae) in Mexico 2518 endemics Tree frogs(Hylidae)in Mexico 9766 endemics Skimmer frogs(Leptodactylidae)in Mexico 3 Thermite toads(Microhylidae)in Mexico 5Clawed frogs(Pipidae)in Mexico 1 Spotted frogs(Ranidae) in Mexico 27 16 endemics Mexico 3 Thermite toads(Microhylidae) in Mexico 5Clawed frogs(Pipidae) in Mexico 1 Spotted frogs(Ranidae)in Mexico 27 16 endemics Drunken toads(Rhinophrynidae)in Mexico 1Digger toads(Scaphiopodidae) in Mexico 4Populations of many amphibian species have declined and some have disappeared. They appear to be more sensitive to changes in the environment than other terrestrial vertebrates. Among the main causes of decline are fungal infection (trichidiomycosis), pollution and the introduction of exotic species, which prey on them.

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